Bacteria embellish their cell envelopes with a variety of specialized polysaccharides. Biosynthesis pathways for these glycans are complex, and final products vary greatly in their chemical structures, physical properties and biological activities. This tremendous diversity comes from the ability to arrange complex pools of monosaccharide building blocks into polymers with many possible linkage configurations. Due to the complex chemistry of bacterial glycans, very few biosynthetic pathways have been defined in detail. To better understand the breadth of polysaccharide production in nature we isolated a bacterium from Lake Michigan called Sphingomonas sp. LM7 that is proficient in exopolysaccharide (EPS) production. We identified genes that contribute to EPS biosynthesis in LM7 by screening a transposon mutant library for colonies displaying altered colony morphology. A gene cluster was identified that appears to encode a complete wzy/wzx- dependent polysaccharide assembly pathway. Deleting individual genes in this cluster caused a non-mucoid phenotype and a corresponding loss of EPS secretion, confirming that LM7 assembles a novel wzy/wzx -dependent polysaccharide. We extracted EPS from LM7 cultures and showed that it contains a linear chain of 3- and 4- linked glucose, galactose, and glucuronic acid residues. Finally, we found that the EPS pathway we identified diverges from those of adhesive polysaccharides such as the holdfast that are conserved in higher Alphaproteobacteria. Our approach of characterizing complete biosynthetic pathways holds promise for engineering of polysaccharides with valuable properties.
Alphaproteobacteria commonly produce an adhesin that is anchored to the exterior of the envelope at one cell pole. In Caulobacter crescentus this adhesin, known as the holdfast, facilitates attachment to solid surfaces and cell partitioning to air-liquid interfaces. An ensemble of two-component signal transduction (TCS) proteins controls C. crescentus holdfast biogenesis by indirectly regulating expression of HfiA, a potent inhibitor of holdfast synthesis. We performed a genetic selection to discover direct hfiA regulators that function downstream of the adhesion TCS system and identified rtrC, a hypothetical gene. rtrC transcription is directly activated by the adhesion TCS regulator, SpdR. Though its primary structure bears no resemblance to any defined protein family, RtrC binds and regulates dozens of sites on the C. crescentus chromosome via a pseudo-palindromic sequence. Among these binding sites is the hfiA promoter, where RtrC functions to directly repress transcription and thereby activate holdfast development. Either RtrC or SpdR can directly activate transcription of a second hfiA repressor, rtrB. Thus, environmental regulation of hfiA transcription by the adhesion TCS system is subject to control by an OR-gated type I coherent feedforward loop; these regulatory motifs are known to buffer gene expression against fluctuations in regulating signals. We have further assessed the functional role of rtrC in holdfast-dependent processes, including surface adherence to a cellulosic substrate and formation of pellicle biofilms at air-liquid interfaces. Strains harboring insertional mutations in rtrC have a diminished adhesion profile in a competitive cheesecloth binding assay and a reduced capacity to colonize pellicle biofilms in select media conditions. Our results add to an emerging understanding of the regulatory topology and molecular components of a complex bacterial cell adhesion control system.
Magnetosomes are lipid-bound organelles that direct the biomineralization of magnetic nanoparticles in magnetotactic bacteria. Magnetosome membranes are not uniform in size and can grow in a biomineralization-dependent manner. However, the underlying mechanisms of magnetosome membrane growth regulation remain unclear. Using cryoelectron tomography, we systematically examined mutants with defects at various stages of magnetosome formation to identify factors involved in controlling membrane growth. We found that a conserved serine protease, MamE, plays a key role in magnetosome membrane growth regulation. When the protease activity of MamE is disrupted, magnetosome membrane growth is restricted, which, in turn, limits the size of the magnetite particles. Consistent with this finding, the upstream regulators of MamE protease activity, MamO and MamM, are also required for magnetosome membrane growth. We then used a combination of candidate and comparative proteomics approaches to identify Mms6 and MamD as two MamE substrates. Mms6 does not appear to participate in magnetosome membrane growth. However, in the absence of MamD, magnetosome membranes grow to a larger size than the wild type. Furthermore, when the cleavage of MamD by MamE protease is blocked, magnetosome membrane growth and biomineralization are severely inhibited, phenocopying the MamE protease-inactive mutant. We therefore propose that the growth of magnetosome membranes is controlled by a protease-mediated switch through processing of MamD. Overall, our work shows that, like many eukaryotic systems, bacteria control the growth and size of biominerals by manipulating the physical properties of intracellular organelles.
Many bacteria can alternate between motile and sessile lifestyles, and wide-ranging sets of environmental stimuli regulate the transition from a free-swimming to a surface-attached state. A transenvelope machine called the flagellum, known primarily for its role in promoting cellular motility, stimulates the motile-sessile transition by detecting contact with solid substrates. Recent work has revealed a striking level of sophistication within the regulatory circuits that link flagellar function to surface colonization. I describe the current paradigm whereby the flagellum promotes the sessile state by increasing production of the second-messenger bis-(3'-5')-cyclic diguanosine monophosphate (c-di-GMP). I then highlight studies that have identified multiple routes by which the flagellum activates c-di-GMP production, calling the concept of a linear surface recognition pathway into the question. I conclude by proposing a role for the flagellum as a signaling hub that integrates environmental stimuli to coordinate a surface colonization program that occurs across a range of spatial and temporal scales.
Bacteria carry out sophisticated developmental programs to colonize exogenous surfaces. The rotary flagellum, a dynamic machine that drives motility, is a key regulator of surface colonization. The specific signals recognized by flagella and the pathways by which those signals are transduced to coordinate adhesion remain subjects of debate. Mutations that disrupt flagellar assembly in the dimorphic bacterium Caulobacter crescentus stimulate the production of a polysaccharide adhesin called the holdfast. Using a genomewide phenotyping approach, we compared surface adhesion profiles in wild-type and flagellar mutant backgrounds of C. crescentus We identified a diverse set of flagellar mutations that enhance adhesion by inducing a hyperholdfast phenotype and discovered a second set of mutations that suppress this phenotype. Epistasis analysis of the flagellar signaling suppressor ( fss ) mutations demonstrated that the flagellum stimulates holdfast production via two genetically distinct pathways. The developmental regulator PleD contributes to holdfast induction in mutants disrupted at both early and late stages of flagellar assembly. Mutants disrupted at late stages of flagellar assembly, which assemble an intact rotor complex, induce holdfast production through an additional process that requires the MotAB stator and its associated diguanylate cyclase, DgcB. We have assigned a subset of the fss genes to either the stator- or pleD -dependent networks and characterized two previously unidentified motility genes that regulate holdfast production via the stator complex. We propose a model through which the flagellum integrates mechanical stimuli into the C. crescentus developmental program to coordinate adhesion. IMPORTANCE Understanding how bacteria colonize solid surfaces is of significant clinical, industrial and ecological importance. In this study, we identified genes that are required for Caulobacter crescentus to activate surface attachment in response to signals from a macromolecular machine called the flagellum. Genes involved in transmitting information from the flagellum can be grouped into separate pathways, those that control the C. crescentus morphogenic program and those that are required for flagellar motility. Our results support a model in which a developmental and a mechanical signaling pathway operate in parallel downstream of the flagellum and converge to regulate adhesion. We conclude that the flagellum serves as a signaling hub by integrating internal and external cues to coordinate surface colonization and emphasize the role of signal integration in linking complex sets of environmental stimuli to individual behaviors.
Bacteriophages have immense potential as antibiotic therapies and in genetic engineering. Understanding the mechanisms that bacteriophages implement to infect their hosts will allow researchers to manipulate these systems and adapt them to specific bacterial targets. In this study, we isolated a bacteriophage capable of infecting the marine alphaproteobacterium Phaeobacter inhibens and determined its mechanism of infection . Phaeobacter virus MD18 , a novel species of bacteriophage isolated in Woods Hole, MA, exhibits potent lytic ability against P. inhibens and appears to be of the Siphoviridae morphotype. The genomic sequence of MD18 displayed significant similarity to another siphophage, the recently discovered Roseobacter phage DSS3P8, but genomic and phylogenetic analyses, assessing host range and a search of available metagenomes are all consistent with the conclusion that Phaeobacter phage MD18 is a novel lytic phage. We incubated MD18 with a library of barcoded P. inhibens transposon insertion mutants and identified 22 genes that appear to be required for phage predation of this host. Network analysis of these genes using genomic position, Gene Ontology (GO) term enrichment, and protein associations revealed that these genes are enriched for roles in assembly of a type IV pilus (T4P) and regulators of cellular morphology. Our results suggest that T4P serve as receptors for a novel marine virus that targets P. inhibens. IMPORTANCE Bacteriophages are useful nonantibiotic therapeutics for bacterial infections as well as threats to industries utilizing bacterial agents. This study identified Phaeobacter virus MD18 , a phage antagonist of Phaeobacter inhibens , a bacterium with promising use as a probiotic for aquatic farming industries. Genomic analysis suggested that Phaeobacter phage MD18 has evolved to enhance its replication in P. inhibens by adopting favorable tRNA genes as well as through genomic sequence adaptation to resemble host codon usage. Lastly, a high-throughput analysis of P. inhibens transposon insertion mutants identified genes that modulate host susceptibility to phage MD18 and implicated the type IV pilus as the likely receptor recognized for adsorption. This study marks the first characterization of the relationship between P. inhibens and an environmentally sampled phage, which informs our understanding of natural threats to the bacterium and may promote the development of novel phage technologies for genetic manipulation of this host.
Surface colonization is central to the lifestyles of many bacteria. Exploiting surface niches requires sophisticated systems for sensing and attaching to solid materials. Caulobacter crescentus synthesizes a polysaccharide-based adhesin known as the holdfast at one of its cell poles, which enables tight attachment to exogenous surfaces. The genes required for holdfast biosynthesis have been analyzed in detail, but difficulties in isolating analytical quantities of the adhesin have limited efforts to characterize its chemical structure. In this report, we describe a method to extract the holdfast from C. crescentus cultures and present a survey of its carbohydrate content. Glucose, 3- O -methylglucose, mannose, N -acetylglucosamine, and xylose were detected in our extracts. Our results provide evidence that the holdfast contains a 1,4-linked backbone of glucose, mannose, N -acetylglucosamine, and xylose that is decorated with branches at the C-6 positions of glucose and mannose. By defining the monosaccharide components in the polysaccharide, our work establishes a framework for characterizing enzymes in the holdfast pathway and provides a broader understanding of how polysaccharide adhesins are built. IMPORTANCE To colonize solid substrates, bacteria often deploy dedicated adhesins that facilitate attachment to surfaces. Caulobacter crescentus initiates surface colonization by secreting a carbohydrate-based adhesin called the holdfast. Because little is known about the chemical makeup of the holdfast, the pathway for its biosynthesis and the physical basis for its unique adhesive properties are poorly understood. This study outlines a method to extract the C. crescentus holdfast and describes the monosaccharide components contained within the adhesive matrix. The composition analysis adds to our understanding of the chemical basis for holdfast attachment and provides missing information needed to characterize enzymes in the biosynthetic pathway.
Due to their intimate physical interactions with the environment, surface polysaccharides are critical determinants of fitness for bacteria. Caulobacter crescentus produces a specialized structure at one of its cell poles called the holdfast that enables attachment to surfaces. Previous studies have shown that the holdfast is composed of carbohydrate-based material and identified a number of genes required for holdfast development. However, incomplete information about its chemical structure, biosynthetic genes, and regulatory principles has limited progress in understanding the mechanism of holdfast synthesis. We leveraged the adhesive properties of the holdfast to perform a saturating screen for genes affecting attachment to cheesecloth over a multiday time course. Using similarities in the temporal profiles of mutants in a transposon library, we defined discrete clusters of genes with related effects on cheesecloth colonization. Holdfast synthesis, flagellar motility, type IV pilus assembly, and smooth lipopolysaccharide (SLPS) production represented key classes of adhesion determinants. Examining these clusters in detail allowed us to predict and experimentally define the functions of multiple uncharacterized genes in both the holdfast and SLPS pathways. In addition, we showed that the pilus and the flagellum control holdfast synthesis separately by modulating the holdfast inhibitor hfiA. This report defines a set of genes contributing to adhesion that includes newly discovered genes required for holdfast biosynthesis and attachment. Our data provide evidence that the holdfast contains a complex polysaccharide with at least four monosaccharides in the repeating unit and underscore the central role of cell polarity in mediating attachment of C. crescentus to surfaces. IMPORTANCE Bacteria routinely encounter biotic and abiotic materials in their surrounding environments, and they often enlist specific behavioral programs to colonize these materials. Adhesion is an early step in colonizing a surface. Caulobacter crescentus produces a structure called the holdfast which allows this organism to attach to and colonize surfaces. To understand how the holdfast is produced, we performed a genome-wide search for genes that contribute to adhesion by selecting for mutants that could not attach to cheesecloth. We discovered complex interactions between genes that mediate surface contact and genes that contribute to holdfast development. Our genetic selection identified what likely represents a comprehensive set of genes required to generate a holdfast, laying the groundwork for a detailed characterization of the enzymes that build this specialized adhesin.
Magnetotactic bacteria are aquatic organisms that produce subcellular magnetic particles in order to orient in the earth's geomagnetic field. MamE, a predicted HtrA protease required to produce magnetite crystals in the magnetotactic bacterium Magnetospirillum magneticum AMB-1, was recently shown to promote the proteolytic processing of itself and two other biomineralization factors in vivo Here, we have analyzed the in vivo processing patterns of three proteolytic targets and used this information to reconstitute proteolysis with a purified form of MamE. MamE cleaves a custom peptide substrate with positive cooperativity, and its autoproteolysis can be stimulated with exogenous substrates or peptides that bind to either of its PDZ domains. A misregulated form of the protease that circumvents specific genetic requirements for proteolysis causes biomineralization defects, showing that proper regulation of its activity is required during magnetite biosynthesis in vivo Our results represent the first reconstitution of the proteolytic activity of MamE and show that its behavior is consistent with the previously proposed checkpoint model for biomineralization.
Many living organisms transform inorganic atoms into highly ordered crystalline materials. An elegant example of such biomineralization processes is the production of nano-scale magnetic crystals in magnetotactic bacteria. Previous studies implicated the involvement of two putative serine proteases, MamE and MamO, during the early stages of magnetite formation in Magnetospirillum magneticum AMB-1. Here, using genetic analysis and X-ray crystallography, we show that MamO has a degenerate active site, rendering it incapable of protease activity. Instead, MamO promotes magnetosome formation through two genetically distinct, noncatalytic activities: activation of MamE-dependent proteolysis of biomineralization factors and direct binding to transition metal ions. By solving the structure of the protease domain bound to a metal ion, we identify a surface-exposed di-histidine motif in MamO that contributes to metal binding and show that it is required to initiate biomineralization in vivo. Finally, we find that pseudoproteases are widespread in magnetotactic bacteria and that they have evolved independently in three separate taxa. Our results highlight the versatility of protein scaffolds in accommodating new biochemical activities and provide unprecedented insight into the earliest stages of biomineralization.
Both plants and fungi produce ent-kaurene as a precursor to the gibberellin plant hormones. A number of rhizobia contain functionally conserved, sequentially acting ent-copalyl diphosphate and ent-kaurene synthases (CPS and KS, respectively), which are found within a well-conserved operon that may lead to the production of gibberellins. Intriguingly, the rice bacterial leaf streak pathogen Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzicola (Xoc) contains a homologous operon. Here, we report biochemical characterization of the encoded CPS and KS, and the impact of insertional mutagenesis on virulence and the plant defense response for these genes, as well as that for one of the cytochromes P450 (CYP112) found in the operon. Activity of the CPS and KS found in this phytopathogen was verified - that is, Xoc is capable of producing ent-kaurene. Moreover, knocking out CPS, KS or CYP112 led to mutant Xoc that exhibited reduced virulence. Investigation of the effect on marker gene transcript levels suggests that the Xoc diterpenoid affects the plant defense response, most directly that mediated by jasmonic acid (JA). Xoc produces an ent-kaurene-derived diterpenoid as a virulence factor, potentially a gibberellin phytohormone, which is antagonistic to JA, consistent with the recent recognition of opposing effects for these phytohormones on the microbial defense response.
Precise control of supercoiling homeostasis is critical to DNA-dependent processes such as gene expression, replication, and damage response. Topoisomerases are central regulators of DNA supercoiling commonly thought to act independently in the recognition and modulation of chromosome superstructure; however, recent evidence has indicated that cells tightly regulate topoisomerase activity to support chromosome dynamics, transcriptional response, and replicative events. How topoisomerase control is executed and linked to the internal status of a cell is poorly understood. To investigate these connections, we determined the structure of Escherichia coli gyrase, a type IIA topoisomerase bound to YacG, a recently identified chromosomally encoded inhibitor protein. Phylogenetic analyses indicate that YacG is frequently associated with coenzyme A (CoA) production enzymes, linking the protein to metabolism and stress. The structure, along with supporting solution studies, shows that YacG represses gyrase by sterically occluding the principal DNA-binding site of the enzyme. Unexpectedly, YacG acts by both engaging two spatially segregated regions associated with small-molecule inhibitor interactions (fluoroquinolone antibiotics and the newly reported antagonist GSK299423) and remodeling the gyrase holoenzyme into an inactive, ATP-trapped configuration. This study establishes a new mechanism for the protein-based control of topoisomerases, an approach that may be used to alter supercoiling levels for responding to changes in cellular state.
Bacterial interactions with plants are accompanied by complex signal exchange processes. Previously, the nitrogen-fixing symbiotic (rhizo)bacterium Bradyrhizobium japonicum was found to carry adjacent genes encoding two sequentially acting diterpene cyclases that together transform geranylgeranyl diphosphate to ent-kaurene, the olefin precursor to the gibberellin plant hormones. Species from the three other major genera of rhizobia were found to have homologous terpene synthase genes. Cloning and functional characterization of a representative set of these enzymes confirmed the capacity of each genus to produce ent-kaurene. Moreover, comparison of their genomic context revealed that these diterpene synthases are found in a conserved operon which includes an adjacent isoprenyl diphosphate synthase, shown here to produce the geranylgeranyl diphosphate precursor, providing a critical link to central metabolism. In addition, the rest of the operon consists of enzymatic genes that presumably lead to a more elaborated diterpenoid, although the production of gibberellins was not observed. Nevertheless, it has previously been shown that the operon is selectively expressed during nodulation, and the scattered distribution of the operon via independent horizontal gene transfer within the symbiotic plasmid or genomic island shown here suggests that such diterpenoid production may modulate the interaction of these particular symbionts with their host plants.
Engineering biosynthetic pathways in heterologous microbial host organisms offers an elegant approach to pathway elucidation via the incorporation of putative biosynthetic enzymes and characterization of resulting novel metabolites. Our previous work in Escherichia coli demonstrated the feasibility of a facile modular approach to engineering the production of labdane-related diterpene (20 carbon) natural products. However, yield was limited (<0.1 mg/L), presumably due to reliance on endogenous production of the isoprenoid precursors dimethylallyl diphosphate and isopentenyl diphosphate. Here, we report incorporation of either a heterologous mevalonate pathway (MEV) or enhancement of the endogenous methyl erythritol phosphate pathway (MEP) with our modular metabolic engineering system. With MEP pathway enhancement, it was found that pyruvate supplementation of rich media and simultaneous overexpression of three genes (idi, dxs, and dxr) resulted in the greatest increase in diterpene yield, indicating distributed metabolic control within this pathway. Incorporation of a heterologous MEV pathway in bioreactor grown cultures resulted in significantly higher yields than MEP pathway enhancement. We have established suitable growth conditions for diterpene production levels ranging from 10 to >100 mg/L of E. coli culture. These amounts are sufficient for nuclear magnetic resonance analyses, enabling characterization of enzymatic products and hence, pathway elucidation. Furthermore, these results represent an up to >1,000-fold improvement in diterpene production from our facile, modular platform, with MEP pathway enhancement offering a cost effective alternative with reasonable yield. Finally, we reiterate here that this modular approach is expandable and should be easily adaptable to the production of any terpenoid natural product.