Microbiology 526: Physiology of Microorganisms
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Nonribosomal peptides are important natural products biosynthesized by nonribosomal peptide synthetases (NRPSs). Adenylation (A) domains of NRPSs are highly specific for the substrate they recognize. This recognition is determined by 10 residues in the substrate-binding pocket, termed the specificity code. This finding led to the proposal that nonribosomal peptides could be altered by specificity code swapping. Unfortunately, this approach has proven, with few exceptions, to be unproductive; changing the specificity code typically results in broadened specificity or poor function. To enhance our understanding of A domain substrate selectivity, we carried out a detailed analysis of the specificity code from the A domain of EntF, an NRPS involved in enterobactin biosynthesis in . Using directed evolution and a genetic selection, we determined which sites in the code have strict residue requirements and which are tolerant of variation. We showed that the EntF A domain, and other l-Ser-specific A domains, have a functional sequence space for l-Ser recognition, rather than a single code. This functional space is more expansive than the aggregate of all characterized l-Ser-specific A domains: we identified 152 new l-Ser specificity codes. Together, our data provide essential insights into how to overcome the barriers that prevent rational changes to A domain specificity.
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Bacillus cereus UW85 was isolated from a root of a field-grown alfalfa plant from Arlington, WI, and identified for its ability to suppress damping off, a disease caused by Phytophthora megasperma f. sp. medicaginis on alfalfa. Here, we report the draft genome sequence of B. cereus UW85, obtained by a combination of Sanger and Illumina sequencing.
The dearth of new antibiotics in the face of widespread antimicrobial resistance makes developing innovative strategies for discovering new antibiotics critical for the future management of infectious disease. Understanding the genetics and evolution of antibiotic producers will help guide the discovery and bioengineering of novel antibiotics. We discovered an isolate in Alaskan boreal forest soil that had broad antimicrobial activity. We elucidated the corresponding antimicrobial natural products and sequenced the genome of this isolate, designated Streptomyces sp. 2AW. This strain illustrates the chemical virtuosity typical of the Streptomyces genus, producing cycloheximide as well as two other biosynthetically unrelated antibiotics, neutramycin, and hygromycin A. Combining bioinformatic and chemical analyses, we identified the gene clusters responsible for antibiotic production. Interestingly, 2AW appears dissimilar from other cycloheximide producers in that the gene encoding the polyketide synthase resides on a separate part of the chromosome from the genes responsible for tailoring cycloheximide-specific modifications. This gene arrangement and our phylogenetic analyses of the gene products suggest that 2AW holds an evolutionarily ancestral lineage of the cycloheximide pathway. Our analyses support the hypothesis that the 2AW glutaramide gene cluster is basal to the lineage wherein cycloheximide production diverged from other glutarimide antibiotics. This study illustrates the power of combining modern biochemical and genomic analyses to gain insight into the evolution of antibiotic-producing microorganisms.
Proteins belonging to the cupin superfamily have a wide range of catalytic and noncatalytic functions. Cupin proteins commonly have the capacity to bind a metal ion with the metal frequently determining the function of the protein. We have been investigating the function of homologous cupin proteins that are conserved in more than 40 species of bacteria. To gain insights into the potential function of these proteins we have solved the structure of Plu4264 from Photorhabdus luminescens TTO1 at a resolution of 1.35 Å and identified manganese as the likely natural metal ligand of the protein.
We have previously shown that the acyl transferase domain of ZmaA (ZmaA-AT) is involved in the biosynthesis of the aminopolyol polyketide/nonribosomal peptide hybrid molecule zwittermicin A from cereus UW85, and that it specifically recognizes the precursor hydroxymalonyl-acyl carrier protein (ACP) and transfers the hydroxymalonyl extender unit to a downstream second ACP via a transacylated AT domain intermediate. We now present the X-ray crystal structure of ZmaA-AT at a resolution of 1.7 Å. The structure shows a patch of solvent-exposed hydrophobic residues in the area where the AT is proposed to interact with the precursor ACP. We addressed the significance of the AT/ACP interaction in precursor specificity of the AT by testing whether malonyl- or methylmalonyl-ACP can be recognized by ZmaA-AT. We found that the ACP itself biases extender unit selection. Until now, structural information for ATs has been limited to ATs specific for the CoA-linked precursors malonyl-CoA and (2S)-methylmalonyl-CoA. This work contributes to polyketide synthase engineering efforts by expanding our knowledge of AT/substrate interactions with the structure of an AT domain that recognizes an ACP-linked substrate, the rare hydroxymalonate. Our structure suggests a model in which ACP interaction with a hydrophobic motif promotes secondary structure formation at the binding site, and opening of the adjacent substrate pocket lid to allow extender unit binding in the AT active site.
The production of mycobactin (MBT) by Mycobacterium tuberculosis is essential for this bacterium to access iron when it is in an infected host. Due to this essential function, there is considerable interest in deciphering the mechanism of MBT assembly, with the goal of targeting select biosynthetic steps for antituberculosis drug development. The proposed scheme for MBT biosynthesis involves assembly of the MBT backbone by a hybrid nonribosomal peptide synthetase (NRPS)/polyketide synthase (PKS) megasynthase followed by the tailoring of this backbone by N(6) acylation of the central l-Lys residue and subsequent N(6)-hydroxylation of the central N(6)-acyl-l-Lys and the terminal caprolactam. A complete testing of this hypothesis has been hindered by the inability to heterologously produce soluble megasynthase components. Here we show that soluble forms of the NRPS components MbtB, MbtE, and MbtF are obtained when these enzymes are coproduced with MbtH. Using these soluble enzymes we determined the amino acid specificity of each adenylation (A) domain. These results suggest that the proposed tailoring enzymes are actually involved in precursor biosynthesis since the A domains of MbtE and MbtF are specific for N(6)-acyl-N(6)-hydroxy-l-Lys and N(6)-hydroxy-l-Lys, respectively. Furthermore, the preference of the A domain of MbtB for l-Thr over l-Ser suggests that the megasynthase produces MBT derivatives with β-methyl oxazoline rings. Since the most prominent form of MBT produced by M. tuberculosis lacks this β-methyl group, a mechanism for demethylation remains to be discovered. These results suggest revisions to the MBT biosynthesis pathway while also identifying new targets for antituberculosis drug development.
Most functional metagenomic studies have been limited by the poor expression of many genes derived from metagenomic DNA in Escherichia coli, which has been the predominant surrogate host to date. To expand the range of expressed genes, we developed tools for construction and functional screening of metagenomic libraries in Streptomyces lividans. We expanded on previously published protocols by constructing a system that enables retrieval and characterization of the metagenomic DNA from biologically active clones. To test the functionality of these methods, we constructed and screened two metagenomic libraries in S. lividans. One was constructed with pooled DNA from 14 bacterial isolates cultured from Alaskan soil and the second with DNA directly extracted from the same soil. Functional screening of these libraries identified numerous clones with hemolytic activity, one clone that produces melanin by a previously unknown mechanism, and one that induces the overproduction of a secondary metabolite native to S. lividans. All bioactive clones were functional in S. lividans but not in E. coli, demonstrating the advantages of screening metagenomic libraries in more than one host.
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The biosynthesis of many natural products of clinical interest involves large, multidomain enzymes called nonribosomal peptide synthetases (NRPSs). In bacteria, many of the gene clusters coding for NRPSs also code for a member of the MbtH-like protein superfamily, which are small proteins of unknown function. Using MbtH-like proteins from three separate NRPS systems, we show that these proteins copurify with the NRPSs and influence amino acid activation. As a consequence, MbtH-like proteins are integral components of NRPSs.
Bryostatin is a natural product that has many medically promising biological activities. Understanding how bryostatin is assembled by the producting symbiotic bacterium has been hampered by the limited availability of genetic information. In the new report, Buchholz et al. (2010) circumvented this issue by using surrogates to replace missing catalytic components.
Polyketide synthases elongate a polyketide backbone by condensing carboxylic acid precursors that are thioesterified to either coenzyme A or an acyl carrier protein (ACP). Two of the three known ACP-linked extender units, (2S)-aminomalonyl-ACP and (2R)-hydroxymalonyl-ACP, are found in the biosynthesis of the agriculturally important antibiotic zwittermicin A. We previously reconstituted the formation of (2S)-aminomalonyl-ACP and (2R)-hydroxymalonyl-ACP from the primary metabolites l-serine and 1,3-bisphospho-d-glycerate. In this report, we characterize the two acyltransferases involved in the specific transfer of the (2S)-aminomalonyl and (2R)-hydroxymalonyl moieties from the ACPs associated with extender unit formation to the ACPs integrated into the polyketide synthase. This work establishes which acyltransferase recognizes each extender unit and also provides insight into the substrate selectivity of these enzymes. These are important step toward harnessing these rare polyketide synthase extender units for combinatorial biosynthesis.
The nonheme iron oxygenase VioC from Streptomyces vinaceus catalyzes Fe(II)-dependent and alpha-ketoglutarate-dependent Cbeta-hydroxylation of L-arginine during the biosynthesis of the tuberactinomycin antibiotic viomycin. Crystal structures of VioC were determined in complexes with the cofactor Fe(II), the substrate L-arginine, the product (2S,3S)-hydroxyarginine and the coproduct succinate at 1.1-1.3 A resolution. The overall structure reveals a beta-helix core fold with two additional helical subdomains that are common to nonheme iron oxygenases of the clavaminic acid synthase-like superfamily. In contrast to other clavaminic acid synthase-like oxygenases, which catalyze the formation of threo diastereomers, VioC produces the erythro diastereomer of Cbeta-hydroxylated L-arginine. This unexpected stereospecificity is caused by conformational control of the bound substrate, which enforces a gauche(-) conformer for chi(1) instead of the trans conformers observed for the asparagine oxygenase AsnO and other members of the clavaminic acid synthase-like superfamily. Additionally, the substrate specificity of VioC was investigated. The side chain of the L-arginine substrate projects outwards from the active site by undergoing interactions mainly with the C-terminal helical subdomain. Accordingly, VioC exerts broadened substrate specificity by accepting the analogs L-homoarginine and L-canavanine for Cbeta-hydroxylation.
Pseudomonas syringae pv. syringae B728a is known to produce the siderophore pyoverdine under iron-limited conditions. It has also been proposed that this pathovar has the ability to produce a second siderophore, achromobactin. Here we present genetic and biochemical evidence supporting the hypothesis that P. syringae pv. syringae B728a produces both of these siderophores. We show that strains unable to synthesize either pyoverdine or achromobactin are unable to grow under iron-limiting conditions, which is consistent with these two molecules being the only siderophores synthesized by P. syringae pv. syringae B728a. Enzymes associated with achromobactin biosynthesis were purified and analyzed for substrate recognition. We showed that AcsD, AcsA, and AcsC together are able to condense citrate, ethanolamine, 2,4-diaminobutyrate, and alpha-ketoglutarate into achromobactin. Replacement of ethanolamine with ethylene diamine or 1,3-diaminopropane in these reactions resulted in the formation of achromobactin analogs that were biologically active. This work provides insights into the biosynthetic steps in the formation of achromobactin and is the first in vitro reconstitution of achromobactin biosynthesis.
Polyketide natural products are assembled by the condensation of an initiating precursor, or starter unit, with a series of additional precursors referred to as extender units. While there are a number of polyketide synthase starter units, there are currently only seven known polyketide synthase extender units. Polyketide synthase extender units thioesterified to coenzyme A have been known for some time; however, polyketide synthase extender units thioesterified to acyl carrier proteins (ACPs) have been identified only recently. Two of them, (2R)-hydroxymalonyl-ACP and (2S)-aminomalonyl-ACP, are found in the biosynthetic pathway of the antibiotic zwittermicin A in Bacillus cereus UW85. The focus of this chapter is the in vitro formation of (2R)-hydroxymalonyl-ACP and (2S)-aminomalonyl-ACP and the characterization of these extender units using high performance liquid chromatography and matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry.
Bacillus cereus UW85 produces the linear aminopolyol antibiotic zwittermicin A (ZmA). This antibiotic has diverse biological activities, such as suppression of disease in plants caused by protists, inhibition of fungal and bacterial growth, and amplification of the insecticidal activity of the toxin protein from Bacillus thuringiensis. ZmA has an unusual chemical structure that includes a d amino acid and ethanolamine and glycolyl moieties, as well as having an unusual terminal amide that is generated from the modification of the nonproteinogenic amino acid beta-ureidoalanine. The diverse biological activities and unusual structure of ZmA have stimulated our efforts to understand how this antibiotic is biosynthesized. Here, we present the identification of the complete ZmA biosynthesis gene cluster from B. cereus UW85. A nearly identical gene cluster is identified on a plasmid from B. cereus AH1134, and we show that this strain is also capable of producing ZmA. Bioinformatics and biochemical analyses of the ZmA biosynthesis enzymes strongly suggest that ZmA is initially biosynthesized as part of a larger metabolite that is processed twice, resulting in the formation of ZmA and two additional metabolites. Additionally, we propose that the biosynthesis gene cluster for the production of the amino sugar kanosamine is contained within the ZmA biosynthesis gene cluster in B. cereus UW85.
This review covers the biosynthesis of extender units that are utilized for the assembly of polyketides by polyketide synthases. The metabolic origins of each of the currently known polyketide synthase extender units are covered.
Viomycin and capreomycin are members of the tuberactinomycin family of antituberculosis drugs. As with many antibacterial drugs, resistance to the tuberactinomycins is problematic in treating tuberculosis; this makes the development of new derivatives of these antibiotics to combat this resistance of utmost importance. To take steps towards developing new derivatives of this family of antibiotics, we have focused our efforts on understanding how these antibiotics are biosynthesized by the producing bacteria so that metabolic engineering of these pathways can be used to generate desired derivatives. Here we present the heterologous production of viomycin in Streptomyces lividans 1326 and the use of targeted-gene deletion as a mechanism for investigating viomycin biosynthesis as well as the generation of viomycin derivatives. Deletion of vioQ resulted in nonhydroxylated derivatives of viomycin, while strains lacking vioP failed to acylate the cyclic pentapeptide core of viomycin with beta-lysine. Surprisingly, strains lacking vioL produced derivatives that had the carbamoyl group of viomycin replaced by an acetyl group. Additionally, the acetylated viomycin derivatives were produced at very low levels. These two observations suggested that the carbamoyl group of the cyclic pentapeptide core of viomycin was introduced at an earlier step in the biosynthetic pathway than previously proposed. We present biochemical evidence that the carbamoyl group is added to the beta-amino group of L-2,3-diaminopropionate prior to incorporation of this amino acid by the nonribosomal peptide synthetases that form the cyclic pentapeptide cores of both viomycin and capreomycin.
Natural products biosynthesized wholly or in part by nonribosomal peptide synthetases (NRPSs) are some of the most important drugs currently used clinically for the treatment of a variety of diseases. Since the initial research into NRPSs in the early 1960s, we have gained considerable insights into the mechanism by which these enzymes assemble these natural products. This review will present a brief history of how the basic mechanistic steps of NRPSs were initially deciphered and how this information has led us to understand how nature modified these systems to generate the enormous structural diversity seen in nonribosomal peptides. This review will also briefly discuss how drug development and discovery are being influenced by what we have learned from nature about nonribosomal peptide biosynthesis.
Pseudomonas species are known to be prolific producers of secondary metabolites that are synthesized wholly or in part by nonribosomal peptide synthetases. In an effort to identify additional nonribosomal peptides produced by these bacteria, a bioinformatics approach was used to "mine" the genome of Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato DC3000 for the metabolic potential to biosynthesize previously unknown nonribosomal peptides. Herein we describe the identification of a nonribosomal peptide biosynthetic gene cluster that codes for proteins involved in the production of six structurally related linear lipopeptides. Structures for each of these lipopeptides were proposed based on amino acid analysis and mass spectrometry analyses. Mutations in this cluster resulted in the loss of swarming motility of P. syringae pv. tomato DC3000 on medium containing a low percentage of agar. This phenotype is consistent with the loss of the ability to produce a lipopeptide that functions as a biosurfactant. This work gives additional evidence that mining the genomes of microorganisms followed by metabolite and phenotypic analyses leads to the identification of previously unknown secondary metabolites.
Capreomycin (CMN) belongs to the tuberactinomycin family of nonribosomal peptide antibiotics that are essential components of the drug arsenal for the treatment of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis. Members of this antibiotic family target the ribosomes of sensitive bacteria and disrupt the function of both subunits of the ribosome. Resistance to these antibiotics in Mycobacterium species arises due to mutations in the genes coding for the 16S or 23S rRNA but can also arise due to mutations in a gene coding for an rRNA-modifying enzyme, TlyA. While Mycobacterium species develop resistance due to alterations in the drug target, it has been proposed that the CMN-producing bacterium, Saccharothrix mutabilis subsp. capreolus, uses CMN modification as a mechanism for resistance rather than ribosome modification. To better understand CMN biosynthesis and resistance in S. mutabilis subsp. capreolus, we focused on the identification of the CMN biosynthetic gene cluster in this bacterium. Here, we describe the cloning and sequence analysis of the CMN biosynthetic gene cluster from S. mutabilis subsp. capreolus ATCC 23892. We provide evidence for the heterologous production of CMN in the genetically tractable bacterium Streptomyces lividans 1326. Finally, we present data supporting the existence of an additional CMN resistance gene. Initial work suggests that this resistance gene codes for an rRNA-modifying enzyme that results in the formation of CMN-resistant ribosomes that are also resistant to the aminoglycoside antibiotic kanamycin. Thus, S. mutabilis subsp. capreolus may also use ribosome modification as a mechanism for CMN resistance.
Herein we report the first biochemical characterization of an enzyme involved in the biosynthesis of chloramphenicol that provides new insights into the origins of the antibiotic.
Combinatorial biosynthesis of type I polyketide synthases is a promising approach for the generation of new structural derivatives of polyketide-containing natural products. A target of this approach has been to change the extender units incorporated into a polyketide backbone to alter the structure and activity of the natural product. One limitation to these efforts is that only four extender units were known: malonyl-CoA, methylmalonyl-CoA, ethylmalonyl-CoA, and methoxymalonyl-acyl carrier protein (ACP). The chemical attributes of these extender units are quite similar, with the exception of the potential hydrogen bonding interactions by the oxygen of the methoxy moiety. Furthermore, the incorporated extender units are not easily modified by using simple chemical approaches when combinatorial biosynthesis is coupled to semisynthetic chemistry. We recently proposed the existence of two additional extender units, hydroxymalonyl-ACP and aminomalonyl-ACP, involved in the biosynthesis of zwittermicin A. These extender units offer unique possibilities for combinatorial biosynthesis and semisynthetic chemistry because of the introduction of free hydroxyl and amino moieties into a polyketide structure. Here, we present the biochemical and mass spectral evidence for the formation of these extender units. This evidence shows the formation of ACP-linked extender units for polyketide synthesis. Interestingly, aminomalonyl-ACP formation involves enzymology typically found in nonribosomal peptide synthesis.
Using the complete genome sequence from Agrobacterium tumefaciens C58, the authors identified a secondary metabolite gene cluster that encodes the biosynthesis of a metabolite with siderophore activity. Support for this conclusion came from genetic and regulatory analysis of the gene cluster, along with the purification of a metabolite from A. tumefaciens C58 with iron-chelating activity. Genetic analysis of mutant strains disrupted in this gene cluster showed that these strains grew more slowly than the wild-type strain in medium lacking iron. Additionally, the mutant strains failed to produce a chrome-azurol-S-reactive material in liquid or solid medium, and failed to produce the metabolite with iron-chelating characteristics that was identified in the wild-type strain. Addition of this purified metabolite to the growth medium of a mutant strain restored its ability to grow in iron-deficient medium. Furthermore, expression of this gene cluster was induced by growth under iron-limiting conditions, suggesting that expression of this gene cluster occurs when iron is scarce. These data are all consistent with the proposal that the proteins encoded by this gene cluster are involved in the production of a siderophore. Interestingly, these proteins show the highest level of amino acid similarity to proteins from a gene cluster found in the filamentous cyanobacterium Nostoc sp. PCC7120, rather than to known siderophore biosynthetic enzymes. Given these properties, it is proposed that the siderophore produced by A. tumefaciens C58 will have a unique chemical structure. Production of the siderophore was not required for virulence of A. tumefaciens when tested with a standard stem inoculation assay.
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Zwittermicin A represents a new chemical class of antibiotic and has diverse biological activities, including suppression of oomycete diseases of plants and potentiation of the insecticidal activity of Bacillus thuringiensis. To identify genes involved in zwittermicin A production, we generated 4,800 transposon mutants of B. cereus UW101C and screened them for zwittermicin A accumulation. Nine mutants did not produce detectable zwittermicin A, and one mutant produced eightfold more than the parent strain. The DNA flanking the transposon insertions in six of the nine nonproducing mutants contains significant sequence similarity to genes involved in peptide and polyketide antibiotic biosynthesis. The mutant that overproduced zwittermicin A contained a transposon insertion immediately upstream from a gene that encodes a deduced protein that is a member of the MarR family of transcriptional regulators. Three genes identified by the mutant analysis mapped to a region that was previously shown to carry the zwittermicin A self-resistance gene, zmaR, and a biosynthetic gene (E. A. Stohl, J. L. Milner, and J. Handelsman, Gene 237:403-411, 1999). Further sequencing of this region revealed genes proposed to encode zwittermicin A precursor biosynthetic enzymes, in particular, those involved in the formation of the aminomalonyl- and hydroxymalonyl-acyl carrier protein intermediates. Additionally, nonribosomal peptide synthetase (NRPS) and polyketide synthase (PKS) homologs are present, suggesting that zwittermicin A is synthesized by a mixed NRPS/PKS pathway.
The tuberactinomycin antibiotics are essential components in the drug arsenal against Mycobacterium tuberculosis infections and are specifically used for the treatment of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis. These antibiotics are also being investigated for their targeting of the catalytic RNAs involved in viral replication and for the treatment of bacterial infections caused by methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus strains and vancomycin-resistant enterococci. We report on the isolation, sequencing, and annotation of the biosynthetic gene cluster for one member of this antibiotic family, viomycin, from Streptomyces sp. strain ATCC 11861. This is the first gene cluster for a member of the tuberactinomycin family of antibiotics sequenced, and the information gained can be extrapolated to all members of this family. The gene cluster covers 36.3 kb of DNA and encodes 20 open reading frames that we propose are involved in the biosynthesis, regulation, export, and activation of viomycin, in addition to self-resistance to the antibiotic. These results enable us to predict the metabolic logic of tuberactinomycin production and begin steps toward the combinatorial biosynthesis of these antibiotics to complement existing chemical modification techniques to produce novel tuberactinomycin derivatives.
The glycopeptide antibiotics vancomycin and teicoplanin are vital components of modern anti-infective chemotherapy exhibiting outstanding activity against Gram-positive pathogens including members of the genera Streptococcus, Staphylococcus, and Enterococcus. These antibiotics also provide fascinating examples of the chemical and associated biosynthetic complexity exploitable in the synthesis of natural products by actinomycetes group of bacteria. We report the sequencing and annotation of the biosynthetic gene cluster for the glycopeptide antibiotic from Streptomyces toyocaensis NRRL15009, the first complete sequence for a teicoplanin class glycopeptide. The cluster includes 34 ORFs encompassing 68 kb and includes all of the genes predicted to be required to synthesize and regulate its biosynthesis. The gene cluster also contains ORFs encoding enzymes responsible for glycopeptide resistance. This role was confirmed by insertional inactivation of the d-Ala-d-lactate ligase, vanAst, which resulted in the predicted -sensitive phenotype and impaired antibiotic biosynthesis. These results provide increased understanding of the biosynthesis of these complex natural products.
Several medically and agriculturally important natural products contain pyrrole moieties. Precursor labeling studies of some of these natural products have shown that L-proline can serve as the biosynthetic precursor for these moieties, including those found in coumermycin A(1), pyoluteorin, and one of the pyrroles of undecylprodigiosin. This suggests a novel mechanism for pyrrole biosynthesis. The biosynthetic gene clusters for these three natural products each encode proteins homologous to adenylation (A) and peptidyl carrier protein (PCP) domains of nonribosomal peptide synthetases in addition to novel acyl-CoA dehydrogenases. Here we show that the three proteins from the undecylprodigiosin and pyoluteorin biosynthetic pathways are sufficient for the conversion of L-proline to pyrrolyl-2-carboxyl-S-PCP. This establishes a novel mechanism for pyrrole biosynthesis and extends the hypothesis that organisms use A/PCP pairs to partition an amino acid into secondary metabolism.